There are alot of medical and biotechnology companies, that have successful developed covid-19 vaccines in year 2020. But in 2021, coronavirus mutated itself and we have to need next gen covid-19 vaccines because previously developed vaccines become less effective on it. To tackle this pandemic, research institutes and other medical faculties are trying to make more powerful vaccines.

Some of the next gen covid-19 vaccines have approved by government authorities and some of them are completing their trials. 10 Next gen Covid-19 vaccines are:

1. NVX-CoV2373 by Novavax

NVX is developed using US-based Novavax’s recombinant nanoparticle technology to generate antigen derived from the coronavirus spike (S) protein and is complemented with the company’s patented saponin-based Matrix-M adjuvant to enhance immune response and stimulate high levels of neutralising antibodies.

In March 2021, Novavax reported that its UK trial determined an efficacy rate of 96% against the original coronavirus and 86% against the UK variant. But in South Africa, where volunteers were exposed to variant B.1.351, the efficacy was only 49%. Novavax expects to deliver 100 million doses for use in the United States in 2021.

2. VIR-7831 by Medicago

Medicago uses a plant-based platform to develop its vaccines. This approach uses living plants as bioreactors to produce non-infectious versions of viruses (called virus-like particles, or VLPs). These VLPs mimic the native structure of viruses, helping them to be easily recognised by the immune system.

A single dose of VIR-7831 in mice generated a positive antibody response after 10 days. Results from a Phase I trial show the vaccine was tolerable and generated an immune response in all participants after two doses.

3. ZyCoV-D by Zydus Cadila

ZyCoV-D is India-based Zydus Cadila’s plasmid DNA vaccine candidate for Covid-19 that targets the viral entry membrane protein of the virus. 

It is developed by Zydus Cadila. ZyCoV-D can be stored at 2 to 8°C for the long term and at 25°C for a few months. It is administered via Needle Free Injection System (NFIS). It is approved for 12-18 year old adults in India.

4. Abdala (CIGB 66) by Cuba’s Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (CIGB)

Abdala (CIGB 66) is a protein vaccine that uses yeast as a receptor-binding domain (RBD) protein and alumina as an adjuvant.The platform used to produce Abdala´s RBD is the same one that the centre used in the past to develop HeberNasVac, a therapeutic vaccine against hepatitis B.

Abdala is designed to be administered three times, at 14-day intervals.

The Cuban government reports that 48,000 doses of the first of three shots of the jab were administered to members of CIGB and healthcare workers in the country, reaching the full population of participants proposed for the trial.

5. CVnCoV By CureVac

CVnCoV is German clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company CureVac’s mRNA-based vaccine, which started development in January 2020. CVnCoV is being developed in collaboration with British pharma giant GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) and Bayer.

The vaccine is an optimised, non-chemically modified mRNA, encoding the prefusion stabilized full-length spike protein of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, and formulated within lipid nanoparticles (LNPs).

6. INO-4800 by Inovio Pharmaceuticals

INO-4800 is the only nucleic-acid based vaccine that is stable at room temperature for more than a year, at 37°C for more than a month and has a five-year projected shelf life at normal refrigeration temperature. The candidate does not need to be frozen during transport or storage.

Composed of an optimised DNA plasmid, INO-4800 is delivered via a proprietary smart device to produce “a robust and tolerable immune response”. US drug developer Inovio plans to scale production of the device while awaiting study results.

7. hAd5 By ImmunityBio

ImmunityBio is developing a second-generation Covid-19 adenovirus vaccine that targets both spike and nucleocapsid DNA in SARS-CoV-2.

The vaccine has the potential to provide multiple routes of administration (subcutaneous, intranasal and oral) to potentially generate mucosal IgA antibody barriers to the virus in the upper respiratory tract where it first enters the body.

ImmunityBio believes the key to creating long-term immunity to the SARS-CoV-2 virus and overcoming the variants that are rapidly developing around the world is to design a vaccine that activates antibodies as well as memory B and T cells to multiple antigens.

The firm’s vaccine demonstrated CD4+ and CD8+ antigen-specific T cell responses in mice and protects nasal and lung airways in non-human primates.

8. UB-612 by Vaxxinity

Vaxxinity (formerly COVAXX), a subsidiary of United Biomedical (UBI), is developing UB-612, a multitope protein/synthetic peptide-based vaccine candidate for Covid-19. UB-612 is designed to activate both T-cell and B-cell immunity in the body and has shown neutralising antibody activity in mice, rats, and guinea pigs.

9. GRAd-COV2 By ReiThera, Leukocare & Univercells

Biotechnology firms ReiThera (Italy), Leukocare (Germany) and Univercells (Belgium) are partnering to develop GRAd-COV2, an adenovirus-based Covid-19 vaccine.

GRAd-COV2 is based on a novel replication-defective Gorilla Adenovirus and encodes for SARS-COV-2 full-length prefusion stabilised Spike protein.

Pre-clinical results in mice and macaques indicate the vaccine generates an immune and Th1-dominated cellular response.

10. Bacillus Calmette-Guerin By Murdoch Children’s Research Institute

Murdoch Children’s Research Institute in Melbourne, Australia is conducting a Phase III trial of the bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) tuberculosis vaccine to see if it also protects against the coronavirus. The trial, called BRACE, is being run in Australia, Brazil, the Netherlands, Spain and the United Kingdom.

Altogether, the trial will recruit more than 10,000 healthcare staff who will be given either the BCG vaccine (currently given to more than 100 million babies worldwide each year to protect against tuberculosis) or a placebo injection. In the UK, routine BCG vaccination ceased in 2005 because of the low rates of TB in the general population.

The BCG vaccine boosts immunity by ‘training’ the immune system to respond to other subsequent infections with greater intensity.


All information is taken from respective research companies and medical faculties of covid-19 vaccines.


Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *