ANAMMOX

– Nandini Das

Person Holding Laboratory Flask

Anammox is an abbreviation for anaerobic ammonium
oxidation
, is a globally important microbial process of the nitrogen cycle.

Nitrite and Ammonium ions are converted directly into
diatomic nitrogen and water in anaerobic conditions.

Overall reaction:


                 NH4+ + NO2  →  N2 + 2H2O

  •         Globally, this
    process may be responsible for 30-50% of the N2 gas produced
    in the oceans, it is the thus a major sink for fixed nitrogen.

                                                          

  •  The bacteria
    that perform the anammox process belong to the bacterial phylum Plancomycetes.                                                                                                                     
  •      Currently, five
    anammox genera have been discovered:  
    Bracadia,
    Kuenia, Anammoxoglobus, Jettenia
    (all
    fresh water species), and Scalindua (marine species)


  •        The anammox
    bacteria are characterized by several striking properties:

Ø They all possess one anammoxosome, a membrane bound
compartment inside the cytoplasm which is the locus of anammox catabolism.

Ø Further the membranes of these bacteria mainly consist
of ladderane lipids so far, the unique in biology.

Ø In chemistry, a ladderane is an organic
molecule
containing two or more fused cyclobutane rings. The name
arises from the resemblance of a series of fused cyclobutane rings to a ladder.

Ø  Denitrification of water bodies and waste water
treatment involve anammox.



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