Bunt of wheat 🌾
- This smut disease also called stinking smuts of wheat are widely distributed in all wheat growing areas of the world.
- They effect plant by destroying the constrent of infected kernels and replacing them with the spores of fungus.
- Bunt causes losses in grain yield.
Symptoms of bunt of wheat 🌾
- Affected plants are usually shorter then healthy one.
- The colour of the plant may changed to bluish green to greenish green.
- The most pronounced symptoms however when the head of infected plants emerged.
- Infected kernels are shorter and thicker and greyish brown then normal golden yellow or red.
- These are usually full of shoot black, powdery mass of spores, the teliospores that give a distil smell of decay fish.
|Bunt of wheat|
Causing organisms of bunt of wheat 🌾
- The disease caused by Telia carris, Telia foetida and Telia contraversa.
- They mycellium is hyaline and during sporulation most cells are transformed into sperical, brownish teliospore.
- Open the germination each spore produces 8 to 16 cells.
- These fuse in pairs forming ‘H’ shaped structures.
- Each secondary sporedium open germination produces dikaryotic Mycelium that infects the plants.
- After systematic development through the plant. The Mycelium again forms teliospores.
- The fungus survives as teliospores on contaminated wheat kernels and in soil.
- When contaminated seed in shown teliospores germinate with the young seedings and form basidia primary sporedia and secondary sporedia.
- The dikaryotic Mycelium formed after germination of Secondary sporedia, penitrate of the young seedlings directly.
- It grows interactly and invoices developing leaves and growing point of the plant.
- The Mycelium grows with these growing points when heads are form on plant the Mycelium invade all part of it even before the head emerge out of the boot.
- These spores are covered by pericarp or the kernels forming a covering around the spore mass.
- They break and release their spore during harvest or thorting.
Karnal Bunt of wheat 🌾
|Karnal bunt of wheat|
- Reported in 1931- by Mitra from Karnal, india
- Sever in Trai & northern parts of country
- Symptoms appear in ear
- Not all ear in a stool affected
- Not all grains in a ear
- Not all grain but partially
- So called partial bunt
Controls of bunt of wheat 🌾
- Use of resisted variety.
- Sanitation that is burning of straw and other infected part.
- Crop rotation to avoid infection by soil borne teliospore.
- Cultural practices that is modification of soil temperature and motiour.
- Seed treatment to aliminate seed born teliospore.
- Hexa chlorobenzene (carboxine) Thiram, Chloranil.